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After detectives interviewed the husbands family, his new girlfriend, his friends, and the wifes sister, they gained knowledge of the couples history of threats and violence. After a father was acquitted by a jury of charges that he had sexually abused his minor daughter, he filed a federal civil rights lawsuit for false arrest, malicious prosecution, and various other claims. The court also upheld the award of attorneys' fees, as the plaintiff's continuation of her lawsuit against the officers after she completed discovery was "unquestionably" groundless and unreasonable. One witness noticed that the shower curtain, liner, and hooks in the couples bathroom had been replaced and store surveillance tapes showed the wife and her sister buying these new items the night her husband went missing. Upholding summary judgment for the defendants, a federal appeals court rejected the argument that the investigation conducted "shocked the conscience." While the investigation "certainly may have benefited from additional interviews and evidence collection," including information about a past accusation against the father by his other daughter that was found to be "unfounded," etc., there was still sufficient evidence of possible abuse to justify the arrest and prosecution. The plaintiff then sought class action certification that the city had a policy or practice authorizing officers to detain persons arrested without a warrant for up to 72 hours before permitting the arrestee to appear before a judge. He then activated his emergency lights, pulling behind her. A pursuit ensued, and only ended after another officer pulled his car in front of the motorist. The city made a Rule 68 offer of judgment granting him relief as to "all claims brought under this lawsuit, which he accepted. A federal appeals court ruled that the officers had at least arguable probable cause to arrest the motorist for obscuring her license plate and trying to elude an officer. To infer from the plaintiff and her friend's shared costumes and joint performance alone an agreement to engage in a transaction subject to regulation impermissibly burdens the right to engage in purely expressive activity and association. Rejecting his false arrest claim, the federal appeals court ruled that because there was probable cause to arrest the motorist for driving a prohibited vehicle, his false arrest claim was barred. A claim of malicious prosecution was meritless in light of his plea of no contest to the disorderly conduct charge. The officers believed the suspect was attempting to destroy evidence, and that he was resisting orders and attempting to flee or resist arrest by jumping in his car. There were factual disputes as to what the off-duty officer told him, the existence of an "assist officer" call bringing him to the scene was in dispute, and the trial court found that the second officer could not have directly observed conduct that would have given him probable cause to arrest the plaintiff, since the events causing the arrest had already occurred by the time he arrived. Overturning summary judgment for the defendant detective, a federal appeals court held that no reasonably competent officer could have believed under the circumstances that there was probable cause for the plaintiff's arrest, if the plaintiff's version of the facts were believed. She claimed that she did not intend to try to cash them, but only to determine if they were real. A police officer clearly had arguable probable cause, based on the facts, to arrest a man he encountered for a violation of the town's public consumption of alcohol ordinance. The court held that something more than that constitutionally protected activity was required to justify the plaintiff's arrest. A juvenile's agreement to resolve charges of obstructing a police investigation by accepting informal probation was not a "favorable termination" of her criminal case, so that her false arrest claim was barred. This was true even though the motorist was not ultimately charged with that offense. Running of his license after he furnished it as identification did not constitute an unlawful search. It would "not be clear to every reasonable officer that the force used was excessive under the circumstances." German v. The appeals court stated in order for the second officer to rely on the first officer's statements for the purposes of an arrest, they must be "clear" and sufficiently specific to "confirm the existence of probable cause." Since the trial court found that undisputed facts in the record did not establish this, the second officer was not entitled to qualified immunity. These four money orders were recognized by a store employee as likely to be fraudulent, and he summoned store security, which confiscated them. is a very sophisticated movie and a remarkable technical achievement by writer-producer director Christopher Nolan. Nolan’s subject is one of the Anglosphere’s great patriotic epics and thus ripe for anti-West snark, but it has actually been well received by the Leftist cultural Establishment e.g.

The injuries he sustained during his arrest for failing to have a drivers license were not de minimis (minimal). An officer who stopped a female motorist for operating a vehicle at night without headlights discovered a package containing controlled substances in the car and detained her at a police station, where she was charged with a drug offense. After she signed it, she stated, "I will see you in court." He then placed her under arrest, handcuffed her, and pulled her out of her car. The officer went to the man's apartment and made a warrantless arrest, with another officer serving as his backup. He was also allegedly dragged out of his car, pushed against the police car, and had his face pushed into the hood. The arrestee's statement that he was the attorney for the co-administrator of the estate connected with the premises, even if true, did not end probable cause to detain him for investigation of a burglary. Additionally, the offer of judgment accepted did not exempt the class certification issue. A patient advocate employed in a hospital emergency room asked a police officer to get off his cell phone, believing that such phone use was prohibited in the area where the officer was. A man who was arrested while he was video recording a police station from a public sidewalk and refused to identify himself sued three officers and the city, claiming that the arrest violated his Fourth and First Amendment rights. The officer refused, and during the ensuing argument, the officer allegedly poked and grabbed the hospital employee, twisted his arm while attempting to handcuff him, and arrested him for "terroristic threats," obstruction of administration of the law, resisting arrest, and disorderly conduct. Applying the obvious-clarity method analysis, the appeals court concluded that no particularized preexisting case law was necessary for it to be clearly established that what the deputy did violated plaintiff's constitutional right to be free from the excessive use of force in his arrest. He admitted to having a gun and could have, at a minimum, been charged with felony unlawful use of a gun by a felon. After a jury acquitted a woman of having assaulted her elderly mother at a nursing home, she sued the arresting officer and a number of other defendants for false arrest. The officer's subjective motivation for making the arrest was irrelevant. The force used in making the arrest was also found to be minimal and not excessive. A motorist claimed that a state trooper unconstitutionally initiated a traffic stop and questioning, detainment, and arrest of him without reasonable suspicion or probable cause. But a prosecutor told the officers to delay charging him until lab results came in establishing whether his gun had been used in the shootings and murder. Summary judgment for the defendants was upheld, as there was probable cause for the arrest, based on a nurse's report of seeing the woman shove her mother into her wheelchair, and the discovery of bruises on the mother's knee and forearms.

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